Mainstream economics generally assumes a universalistic market-oriented economic behavior that drives countries to adopt one economic system, with marginal variations. This book extends the scope of theory and applications by asserting that other distinct behaviors evolve and dominate in other economic systems. Systemic differences arise from distinct social, political and economic behavioral-motivational types that associate with intensive agent activity in household, state and firm settings. External conditions, historical events, and agent interactions ultimately result in domination of one motivational type over others; thus determining distinct profiles of structure, conduct, and performance in different economic systems, that are generally observed in the adopting countries.The book validates the theory empirically, traces the historical evolution of the respective economic systems in the world regions and evaluates their responses to various systemic failures such as monopoly, uncertainties, externalities and collective needs. The evaluation is extended to structural changes and system performance regarding growth and distribution.This book draws on microeconomics, welfare economics, development economics and the international economy. The book projects the influence potential of leading countries/systems, and treats effects of displacement of incumbent leaders (US, Japan) by newcomer leaders (China, India) on system competition and on world governance.